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Sasanid Empire

The Sasanians were the last pre-Islamic Iranian dynasty who ruled an expansive empire stretching across western and central Asia. The Sasanians called their empire Eranshahr, the Empire of the Iranians. Much of the material culture that survives is court art, that is, luxury objects and royal monuments created and used by the empire’s ruling and […]

Seljuk Empire

Seljuks from East to West or From Khorasan to Anatolia Geography where seljuks state has appeared and its neighbours should be known for determining  formation and interaction of Seljuks state organization. Early date of Seljuks family who are known to be Kınık tribe of Oghuz turks starts with Yengikent and Cent cities where are winter […]


The name Shahsevan means “Adherents of the king”. According to available resources Shahsavan tribes are survivors of Turkish tribes from Asia minor that have come to Azerbaijan-Iran in the fourteenth century. one thing is clear: the history of the Shahsavan tribes goes back to the Safaviyeh kings era, they were organized by Shah Esmael (II) […]


In Anatolia there is no other motif carrying so many different meanings than the bird motif. While birds like owls and ravens imply bad luck, doves, pigeons and nightingales are used to symbolize good luck. The Bird is the symbol of happiness, joy and love. It is the soul of the dead. It is longing, […]


It is believed that some people possess a power in their glance which causes harm, injury, misfortune and even death. Evil eyes are various objects that reduce the effect of evil glance, thus protecting the ones who carry them. Blue beads, wild mustard, garlic, sea shells, old coins, lead, mercury, the shell of a small […]


The cypress is depicted as a variation of the tree of life motif, which represents everlasting life. The cypress is used in rituals with the dead, but symbolizes the eternal life that comes after death. The cypress was the most popular tree used in Persian gardens, and accordingly, was represented in garden carpets. The oldest known living […]


Brilliantly painted manuscripts. Exquisitely detailed miniatures. Fine silks. Complex, ornate palaces. The art of the Safavids is simply magnificent.The Safavids were a dynastic family that ruled over modern-day Iran. They sustained one of the longest running empires of Iranian history, lasting from 1501 to 1736. At the height of their reign, the Safavids controlled not […]

Jameh Mosque of Isfahan

Most cities with sizable Muslim populations possess a primary congregational mosque. Diverse in design and dimensions, they can illustrate the style of the period or geographic region, the choices of the patron, and the expertise of the architect. Congregational mosques are often expanded in conjunction with the growth and needs of the umma, or Muslim […]